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216                                   FLORA INMCA.

monocarpellarej oiwla pauca v. plurima ; stylus brevissimus.
baccatus, rarius capsularis v. transverse dehiscens. JSemina
erects t1. horizontalia, umbilico prope basin sublaterali. Albumen, car-
ifctemn v. corneum. JtMryo axilw, orthotropus. Cotyledones appositse,
genmriatiene foliaceae. — IVutices, rarius herbse, pleraque glaberrima,
fofiis altemis simplicibw compotitme stipulatis v. eaestipulatisy floribus
axttlaribw solitfiriis v.fasciculatis racemosis v. subcorymbosis, pedicellis
ban dracteatis.
Berleridw are pretty uniformly scattered over the north temperate zone, except-
ing in Enrope, where the species are very few. They abound in the Himalaya, and in
the mountains of America from the latitude of Canada to Cape Horn, and are also
found in.', the Malayan Archipelago. Within the Arctic-zone they are unknown, as
also in Australasia, Polynesia, and Africa, except in the Mediterranean region. Ber-
beris itself Is the only widely spread genus of the Order, and is most fully developed
in. the Himalaya and South American Andes. Podophyllum has one North Ameri-
can and one Himalayan species. Epimediwn is confined to the ,north temperate
lone, and its maximum occurs in Japan. Leontice and Bongardia are oriental
genera.
The affinities of Berberidea .are very evident, and the limits of the Order are
pretty well marked. They are immediately allied to Lardisabalece through De-
caisnea, which has simply pinnated leaves and articulated petioles, and to Meni-
spermea; also to Ranunculacea through Berberis, which has nectarial glands on
the petals, also through an American genus, Je/ersonia, which has 4-5-merons
flowers, and through Podoptyttum, whose anthers open by longitudinal slit§, gpd in
one species of which the stamens are numerous. Other points of affinity giaytbe
pointed oat with Anonacea, Magnoliacece, and Fumariacea, but these are afavajre
more or less common to the whole group of Orders to which it belongs. In its
cotyledons being closely applied to one another, it differs from many of these Orders,
And in its anthers opening by valves from aU except Athero&permea.
Btrieridta we consider to have no striking affinity with any Orders but Apocar-
pous ThalamiflorcB, except Fumariacete and their allies, though the valvate anthers
have been considered to ally them to Lauracea, and both Auguste St. Hilaire, and
latterly Lindley, have endeavoured to show that they are most closely allied to Vines.
In the * Vegetable Kingdom/ indeed, they are classed in the same alliance with Vines,
Droseracea, Fumariacea, Pittosporacea, QlacacPas, and Cyrittacea, with none of
which, except Fumariacea, do we regard them as holding any dhoet affinity. It is
there said that Vines and Berberidea " so nearly agree in fructification, that if a
Berbery bad two consolidated carpefe, and anthers opening longitudinally, it would
almost be a Vine." But, though not inclined to lay much stress on the anthers, we
cannot overlook the importance of the characters of the floral organs, nor the habit
of Vines, the number of parts of their flower, their disc, and the valvate estivation
of their perianth, points which, if disregarded, leave few upon which to systematize
amongst Bicotyledons; added to which, the affinities of Vines are so manifestly with
other Orders. Meliacea (and perhaps J.raliacea}, of Pittosporea with Violacea: and
Tremandrea, of Olacacea with Santalacea, and of Cyrillacea with still further re-
moved Orders, that it appears to us impossible to bring these families together with-
ont in each case substituting analogical resemblances for affinif ^s.
1. BEBBERIS, L.
Mahonia, AM., J)0.
Sqpala 6, extus 2-8-bracteolata.   Petata 6, concava, intus plus mi-
nusve biglandulosa.    Stamina  6.    Stigma peltatura.    JBacca oligo-